Classes Detected

Detection Limits

  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Amino acids, alcohols, amines, sugars, organic acids, water soluble metabolites

Micromolar (10-6)

  • Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, bile acids, thiols

Nanomolar (10-9)

  • Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)
  • Direct Flow Injection Mass Spectrometry (DI-MS)

Amino acids, biogenic amines, primary amines, acylcarnitines, carbohydrates, phospholipids, sphingolipids

Nanomolar (10-9)

  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV)
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence (HPLC-FD)

Aromatics, secondary metabolites including polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins (B, C, D, E, A), lipids, nucleotides and others

Micromolar to Picomolar
(10-6 to 10-12)

  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

Up to 40 Trace metals

Micromolar (10-6)

  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD)

Phospholipids, TAGs, DAGs, MAGs, CEs, and free fatty acids

Nanomolar (10-9)

  • Tissue Imaging

Fatty acids, lipids, acyl carnitines, drug molecules and metabolites in situ

Micromolar (10-6)


For the list of metabolites that is identifiable by the various analysis method, click on the on the following links to access the excel file.


  1. Metabolites Identifiable by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
  2. Metabolites Identifiable by Direct Flow Injection Mass Spectrometry (DI-MS)
  3. Metabolites Identifiable by Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
  4. Metabolites Identifiable by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
  5. Metabolites Identifiable by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)
  6. Metabolites Identifiable by MALDI imaging
  7. Metabolites Identifiable by ICP-MS
  8. Metabolites Identifiable by Lipidomics